Hemlock Wooley-Adelgid

Symptoms


The earliest visible sign of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid is the presence of white, cottony masses, usually located on the twigs and at the bases of the needles. Populations tend to be denser in the lower limbs, but can be anywhere on the tree. Symptoms will progress to fading, thinning and dying limbs, which die off beginning at the base of the tree and moving upwards. Left untreated, the death of the tree is certain.

Treatment


A trunk injection of IMA-jet, active ingredient imidacloprid, insecticide is designed to work effectively on hemlock's vascular system injecting high volumes of product under low pressure, resulting in efficient uptake. The QUIK-jet works best with low volumes of applications in hemlock, and takes only minutes to apply. IMA-jet may be mixed with the micro-element supplement MICRO-jet Mixable. These two products together provide insect control and a tree health response in one treatment. To give the tree a greater health benefit, a follow up application of ROOT-jet Iron, MIN-jet Calcium or MIN-jet Iron is recommended, the specific formulation dependent upon soil type.

Timing


Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees for injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Fall treatments of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid coincide with renewed feeding. Applications of IMA-jet may be applied in hemlock from September through December, as long as soil temperatures are above 40 degrees. The second window for application is in the spring months, from March through June.

Destructive Pests of New Jersey

Asian Longhorned Beetle

The Asian Longhorned Beetle is a destructive pest of trees, originally from China. It can be identified by alternating white bands on long brown/black antenna. The appearance of small holes on trees can be an indication of infestation. If you see this pest please contact the New Jersey agricultural Extension Service at the link above.

Dutch Elm Disease

Dutch Elm Disease is a fungus which affects the American Elm. Symptoms begin as wilting of the leaves which turn yellow, and eventuelly brown. Dutch Elm Disease is a result of the fungus infecting and clogging the vascular system (Pholem) of the tree. This prevents water movement to the crown causing the browning and yellowing of the leaves, as the tree wilts and dies. The disease is spread by the Elm Bark Beetle. Certain fungicides, when properly injected, are effective in protecting elm trees from infection, and must be repeated every one to three seasons. Elm trees should not be pruned during the growing season because sap oozing from wounds may attract the Elm Bark Beetle.

Bacterial Leaf Scorch

Bacterial Leaf Scorch is an incurable plant disease that has infected an estimated 39 percent of oaks statewide. There is no cure for Bacterial Leaf Scorch, but with proper management affected trees can often be maintained for many years.Infected trees will need to be pruned, to remove infected limbs, and in many cases may need to be removed.

Emerald Ash Borer

The larval stage of the Emerald Ash Borer bores holes into the trunk and serpentine feeding galleries which disrupt the flow of nutrients as they rise up the trunk from the roots to the crown via the phloem (the tree's vascular structures) just under the bark, which eventually results in the death of the tree.

Hemlock Wooley-Adelgid

Adelgids are small insects, related to aphids. The hemlock woolly adelgid sucks sap from the young branches which results in needle drop and branch dieback.

Birch Leafminer

Birch Leafminer is an invasive wasp which lays its eggs into the leaves. Once hatched, leafminer larvae consume the tissues between upper and lower leaf surfaces causing brown blotches.” Healthy trees can withstand occasional attacks by birch leafminer. Repeated attacks can result in the general decline and death of the tree over time by secondary pests such as fungi and the bronze birch borer.

Common Spring-Time Diseases of Woody Ornamentals in the Landscape

Landscape Plants Rated by Deer Resistance

Pine Bark Beetles

There are many species of bark beetles that infest conifers. Adults tunnel through the bark, mate and lay eggs in the phloem, under the bark,where the larvae develop. Adults develop from pupae and emerge by boring out through the bark. Multiple generations a year are possible.

Leaf Chewing Caterpillars

Caterpillars are the larval stage of moths and are among the most serious defoliators of trees. The eastern tent caterpillar is responsible for defoliating forest trees, as well as cherry, apple and other ornamental shade trees. Others include the gypsy moth, winter moth, spring and fall cankerworm, bagworm, clear wing borers, pine tip moth and tussock moth. Some moth larvae, such as tip moths and clear wing borers, feed inside the twigs, shoots or trunk of the tree and are virtually unseen.

Sudden Oak Death

Oak Wilt

Oak Decline

Red Oak Borer

Iron Chlorosis

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose

Apple scab

Forest Health in New Jersey

Oak Diseases

Armillaria Root Rot